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The Complete Guide to MLA & Citations

Citation Machine — Write Smarter, Cite Accurately

❶Many sources have numbers associated with them. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication.

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MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)
MLA Formatting and Style Guide
Submitting Work

When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.

For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7. The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist. The Untold Story of Asbestos: Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from BC to the Present. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix. From Prehistoric to Modern Times. The Price of Loyalty: If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.

An Uncommon Journey of Spirit. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Cohen, Andrew, and J. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter.

The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Mowat and Paul Werstine. Inside the Special Forces. The Power of Focus for College Students. Speier, and Jennifer R. A History of the Modern World: Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis. A History in Words and Pictures. Canadian Facts and Dates.

Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: U of Pittsburgh P, True Stories of Trouble and Survival. The Joy in Loving: Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. With Scott to the Pole: Photographs of Herbert Ponting. Rita and Robert Kimber. If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers.

If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.

Note also that there is no period after the month. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, , citation will be 18 July Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e. Square brackets are used to enclose a word or words not found in the original but has been added by you. The above citation shows: If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end.

Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. Wolanski, Eric, et al. Suggested citation example from SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone.

Example in MLA style: Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Your Canadian Financial Planning Software. May use short forms: Edition, Editor, or Edited , Comp. Views from Within , comp. Master of Dreams , by Diane Waldman. Toronto-Central West Edition , Companies Even Get a Bonjour? When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. Short forms may be used, e. You may add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor.

If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda.

Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Twentieth Century Fox and Paramount, Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. National Council on Disability. GPO, July 31, For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.

Internet citation for an article from an online database e. SIRS, eLibrary , study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated.

Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source. If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation.

To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the role of the individual, the word by, and then their name in standard order. If the name of the contributor comes after a period, capitalize the first letter in the role of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the first letter in the role of the individual is lowercased. Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and narrators can often be found in this part of the citation.

When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. Also, abbreviate the word edition to ed. Dodd and Bruce I. Google Books , books. Many sources have numbers associated with them. In MLA format citing, it is important to include the name of the publisher the organization that created or published the source , so that readers can locate the exact source themselves.

Include publishers for all sources except for periodicals. Also, for websites, exclude this information when the name of the publisher matches the name of the website. Publication dates are extremely important to include in citations. They allow the reader to understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to locate the source themselves.

Whichever format you decide to use, use the same format for all of your citations. Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date?

Use the date that is most applicable to your research. The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source. For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on only one page, use p.

When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. Looking for an online tool to do the work for you? Citation Machine can help! Our site is simple and fun!

Need some more help? There is further good information here. Theory and International Application. Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. Gale Health Reference Center Academic , i. When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on a website. Last name, First name of author. The Rise of Big Data in the Classroom. There are a variety of ways to cite an image.

This section will show how to cite a digital image found on a website and an image in print. Last name, First name of the creator if available. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics.

In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. Identify Undervalued Players and Team Offenses.

Wondering how to cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google? Cite the image using the information from the original site.

They can be found on the cover of the magazine and on the article itself:. On the cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the date the magazine was published.

If the article appears on nonconsecutive pages, include the page number for the first page the article is found on, and then add a plus sign after it. Ernest Hemingway, Revised and Revisited. An essay is an analytic writing piece that is generally short in length compared to books and journal articles and focuses on a specific topic or subject. Citing an essay is similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in an anthology. Include the name of the individual author or the group of authors, the title of the essay placed in quotation marks , the title of the book, collection, or site the essay is found on in italics , the name of the editor if there is one , the volume and issue number if they are available , the publication date, and the location.

The location can be either a page range or a URL. Click here for additional information on essays. Check to see if the the PDF is written by an individual, set of authors, or an organization or company. Continue with the title of the PDF, version if there are different versions available , the publisher only include if the name of the publisher is different than the name of the author or the title , the publication date, and the location usually a URL if found online.

Notice that in the example below, the name of the publisher The American Podiatric Medical Association is omitted since the name of the publisher is the same name as the author.

American Podiatric Medical Association. The Real Cost of Diabetes: Click here for more on PDFs. Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor.

Title of the Textbook. Version, Publisher, Year published. Cherny, Nathan, et al. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. Last name, First name of the chapter author. Surveys can be found online or in print. International Food Information Council Foundation. Our website will help you develop your works cited page and in text and parenthetical citations in just a few clicks.

Check out this article to see it in the news. When it comes to formatting your paper or essay for academic purposes, there are specific guidelines to follow. The section that follows will answer the following questions: This heading is featured at the top of the first page of the research paper or research assignment. If your instructor or professor does in fact require or ask for a title page, follow the directions that you are given.

They should provide you with the information needed to create a separate, individual title page. If they do not provide you with instructions, and you are left to create it at your own discretion, use the header information above to help you develop your research paper title page.

You may want to include other information, such as the name of your school or university. It contains a list of all of the citations of sources used for the research project.

Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, Periodicals Index Online , search-proquest-com. Plagiarism and Grammar Checker. Auto-fill mode Manual entry mode. Students will receive a badge upon passing each quiz and a course-completion badge after completing all the lessons and passing all five quizzes. Students can create a free account to take the course and start earning badges. Each module focuses on searching the bibliography for scholarly publications in one of four disciplines: Students who complete the new modules can earn badges in each of these four subject areas.

Visit the course site to access the main course and new modules. Interested in other resources for teaching research and information literacy? The MLA International Bibliography offers an extensive tutorial video series on searching the bibliography. New tutorials are released every few months.

Article in an encyclopedia with an author

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The MLA International Bibliography is an essential tool for research in all aspects of modern languages and literature. Available as a searchable online database of more than million records and constantly updated by scholars in the field, the bibliography is used by academics and teachers around the world to find and share their work.

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Automatic works cited and bibliography formatting for MLA, APA and Chicago/Turabian citation styles. Now supports 7th edition of MLA.

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The Citation Machine MLA generator, which is an MLA citation website, will create all of your citations in just a few clicks. Click here to see more across the site. Also, check out this article to see MLA citation in the news. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

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A bibliography, by definition, is the detailed listing of the books, journals, magazines, or online sources that an author has used in researching and writing their work. Understanding the MLA International Bibliography: An Online Course. The MLA has developed an online course to teach students how to use the MLA International Bibliography for college-level research. Each of the five units in the course presents a lesson, followed by progression questions to reinforce the lesson through active engagement with the bibliography.